Polar Bears Anatomy
Polar Bears are extremely large animals. Male polar bears can weigh up around 680 kg and be around 3 meters high. Female polar bears are smaller and only weigh up to about 362 kg and reach about 2.5 meters high.
A Polar Bears claws are designed sharper then other bears claws, so it is easy for the Polar Bears to walk across the ice.
A Polars Bears body is extremely long and they for them to be able to stride along the ice.
Polar Bears have short and stocky feet and legs so that the weight of their heavy body is distributed evenly.
To help protect the Polar bear feet from the ice it has pads on the bottom of its paws.
Polar bears have 42 sharp teeth. Because they are carnivores they need to have sharp teeth to eat their prey.
Polar bears are known for how they swim as they paddle with their paws like the ‘doggy paddle’ They are able to float in the water for long periods of time due to the amount of fat this is on their bodies.
How do Polar Bears adapt to their environment
Polar bears have changed to adapt to their cold environment. A polar bear has white fur so it is able to blend into the snow when they are hunting, this makes them able to sneak up on their prey.
The polar bear also uses it fur and body fat to be able to keep warm in the cold climate. As polar bears have a large surface area of body they loose less warmth.
Polar Bears have large paws and sharp claws to make them able to walk across the ice.
Polar Bear sleeping
Polar Bear eating
Polar Bear cleaning
Behaviour of a Polar Bear
Like humans polar bears can walk on their feet, the same way we do. Unlike other bears they can walk upright for short periods of time, although walking takes twice the amount of energy from them.
Female mother polar bears are quiet interactive with their cubs, they are always touching and grooming their cubs.
Polar bears remain in pairs for over a week for mating, the male then leaves as the mother raises the cubs.
Polar bears have been found to play fight with each other, especially brother and sister cubs.
Polar Bears hibernate in the winter as they store enough body fat.
A polar bears main source of food is ringed seal. They hunt the seals by waiting for them to come up for air in the ice holes, then attacking. Polar bears have a powerful sense of smell that they are able to smell and wait for seals to rise for air.
Polar bears use a combination of boys language to communicate
Nose to nose greetings
Chuffing (sounds of distress)
Hissing and snorting
Attacking with head and ear down
Bathing and Cleaning
Polar bears like to be clean and dry. After eating polar bears will then spend about 15 minutes in the water washing themselves off, they lick the areas they can reach to clean. They then dry themselves by shaking themselves off like a dog, then rubbing their bodies on the snow
Most polar bears sleeping for 7-8 hours a day, and like to take naps. During warmer climates they end to sleep more in the day time then going to hunt at night.
They sleep in shallow pits that they dig in the snow and nap on the snow.
Otter Habitat and Distribution
Otters are found on all continent except for Australia and Antarctica. Otters enjoy the being in the fresh water so they live in rivers, oceans, steams and lakes. They don’t like deep water so they tend to stay around shallow water so they can easily access land if needed.
Otters live on land in close places to water which are called a holt. They like cold water so they end to live in places where the water is extremely cold.
Otters have designed layers of hair to cover there bodies so their skin is kept warm in the process, this is rumored to be why otters have stayed alive for so many years.
They are able to stay well hidden in their habitats which makes them less likely to be found by predators on land. When swimming they stay close to land to avoid water predators.
They mark their habitats with there dropping as they are then able to find there habitats when they come back
Otters main source of food is small fish and crabs. Otters are carnivores and will mainly eat anything that they can catch in the water or even on land.
Otters live in small family groups when they have babies, but Otters have strict territories that they protect from others of the same sex. Male territories will cross with female territories at some points but two male groups will not cross.
What animals form monogamous relationships?
Lar gibbon - One of the only primate that stay in monogamous relationships. Gibbons have been found to live in close families.
Swans- Swans have become a common symbol of mating for life. The males often help in building the nest and keeping the egg warm and incubating. The pair of birds will often return to this nest for many following years.
Malagasy giant rat -These rats are the few monogamous rodents. Both parents stay with there babies while they grow up. Though the rodents will stay with there partner for life, if one of them dies the other will find another partner to replace the old one.
Albatross- Albatrosses are famous for their flirtatiousness mating dances. Most Albatrosses stay with there mate for life which for these birds can be decades, though not all the males in the relationship will stay faithful.
California Mouse- Scientific studies show that these mouse stay strictly committed to their partner. Genetic testing showed that 28 mouse families over the period of 2 years came from the correct father.
Black Vultures- These birds are serious about their partners. The two stay together year round and share the parenting duties as they stay with there babies. Testing showed no cross in DNA with other Vulture families.
Shingleback- The shingleback skink usually pairs off with the same mate during mating season. When the women gives birth to the babies the male sticks around to keep them out of danger from predators. It is shown that if one of the partners dies the other will stay by its side for many days until moving on.
Sandhill Crane- The Crane is a symbol of monogamous relationships. During breeding migration, single cranes those have not found or have lost a mate perform mating dances.
Kirk's Dik-dik- The Antelope seems to stay with their partner for long times. They are tightly bonded pairs and hardly stray from each another.
Convict cichlid- The cichlid fish is a considerate mate and parent. The fish pairs off with a mate. Once the female lays eggs, they both spend time keeping potential predators away.
Penguins- Penguins mate for life. They are quite famous for their mating patterns. They both stay together to raise their young (shown in the above photo) They split the duties of raising their babies e.g the mother hunts for food while the father keeps the eggs warm. Those they stay monogamous if one looses a partner they will find another life partner.
Cockroaches- The cockroach is a example of a bug which mates for life.
Wolves- Wolves are loyal family members for life. A Wolf pack normally consists of a male, female and their babies. (above photo)
Beavers- Beavers are known to stay together to raise their babies. They are also loyal and faithful to their mates.
Owls- Owls choose their mates and then stay together until death. They never cheat on their partners.
What is the difference between sexual and asexual reproduction?
Asexual reproduction is reproduction without having sex. In asexual reproduction a single organism or cell makes a copy of itself. The genes are the same of the original and its copy will be the same. Mutations can occur whey cells or organisms are cloning themselves.
Sexual reproduction is reproduction of some animals and plants by sex.Organisms that reproduce sexually have two different sexes: male and female.
How do elephants chose their partners?
When in the wild male and female elephants don’t live together. The females live in groups together to help each other raise their babies.
When the males meet sexual maturity at around the age of 14, They leave the group of mothers and join a male group.
The Male and Female groups then meet together during mating season.
When a females are ready to mate they go into a stage called estrous which means she is ready to mate. Female elephants can go into oestrus four times a year once they reach sexual maturity at around the age of 12. Unless the female is pregnant or has a calf, when in the state of estrous they releases pheromones that are used to attract the male elephants. The female will also make loud mating sounds to call the males to her. If a male elephant hears her calls and is attracted to her release of pheromones he will try to mate with the female.
A Male elephant is ready to mate when they go into the period of musth. Musth is a period of high testosterone levels where the male elephant can be aggressive and dominant over the other males. They they are in musth their urine will contain pheromones that will attract the female elephants to them.
Female elephants are more likely to pick to mate with males that are in musth because they are the more dominant males. When in musth, male elephants will usually guard females who are in oestrus from other males.
How do Elephants reproduce?
Elephants are mammals so they reproduce sexually, the male fertilises the females egg. A female elephant is only fertile for a few days per year. If the female falls pregnant, she will be pregnant for 22 months (the longest of any land animal)
When around the time of 22 months of pregnancy the female elephant will try to induce her labour by eating certain plants.
The calf when born will weighs over 100kg. Rather then being raised by the mother the calf will mostly learn from the the most experienced in the pack.
What guidelines should be followed to ensure that pet chicks are being treated in an ethical manner?
To keep the chicks healthy it is essential that the chickens are provided with the correct dietary requirements. A chick needs a balanced diet of protein, carbohydrates, fat, vitamins and minerals for a healthy body and shell. Lack of calcium can result in thin egg shells. I nutritious chickens diet should include insects, grains, berries, seeds and plants.
Chickens also require a constant fresh and clean water. The chicks need water during summer and winter to keep hydrated and healthy.
Chickens need protection from the element and diseases to stay alive and healthy. A distressed chicken becomes unhealthy. A snug and secure coop will offer shelter to the chickens and protect them from the weather.
Famous Scientific experiments that have been conducted using animals? Chickens were use in many test to recognize how the immune system works. Using chicks, they found that removing the bursa (a thymus organ at the tail end, similar to our appendix) They found that soon after the chickens hatches they saw that they still developed a normal immune system. They decided to use chickens because they have both a thymus and a bursa, so they were able to determine which organ functioned to created the immune system
What are the effects of cosmetic testing on animals?
Every year millions of animals are poisoned or killed in animal testing. Animal testing has been going since as long ago as the 1920s to test the toxicity of human products and effect their ingredients has on the animal. Rats, mice, guinea pigs, rabbits, and other animals are usual the most common animals used for animal testing.
The test can effect the animals eyes and skin due to their sensitivity. Most products being tested are skin products that can burn in skin if not correct. They test these effects on animals so that humans dont get the side effects of the products.